The famous English case of Rookes against Barnard concerned a closed shop agreement.  The alliances of the International Labour Organization do not deal with the legality of closed shop rules, so the question of each nation is left to the discretion of each nation.  The legal status of closed shop agreements varies considerably from country to country, ranging from prohibitions in the agreement to non-mention to comprehensive regulation of the agreement. Japanese labour law treats large employers differently from small employers and it is much less likely that provisions on union shops will be negotiated in small businesses. For example, Chalmer cites data from 1979 that show that 50% of jobs in Japan had a union shop. But while 73% of employers with more than 1,000 employees had such agreements, only 59% of employers with 500 to 999 employees did so. Some agreements are formulated in an ambiguous manner, which poses a problem for their implementation. Other provisions of the union shop are subject to various requirements that the union promotes for “peace of work”, such as for example. B the compulsory conciliation of all disputes and the waiver of the right to strike.  Most states do not allow union stores where everyone must join the union when working in a unionized company.
However, if you do, union membership is not optional if you accept union employment. This means that you have to pay dues and that the union represents you. If you are responsible for human resources for a unionized company, make sure you establish a quality and positive relationship with the union yourself. Unions have other rights than employees agree. For example, you can only terminate union staff for reasons set out in their contract. Dismissals must be made according to the formula negotiated in the union contract, which can also determine who receives increases and promotions. Article 17 of the Trade Unions Act requires that the collective agreement be extended to all workers of the same type if 75 per cent of this class of the employer`s workers are already covered by the agreement. Although this appears to be imposed on union members, the definition of what constitutes a “similar type of worker” has proved too difficult in practice and Section 17 is rarely applied.  Vatican lay employees are members of a trade union shop, the Vatican Association of Lay Workers, making the Vatican the most trade union sovereign state in the world. . .